Z Boson Hypercharge 

Z Boson Hypercharge

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The Z boson mediates the transfer of momentum, spin, and energy when neutrinos scatter elastically from matter, something that must happen without the production or absorption of ... Read more new, charged particles. Such behaviour (which is almost as common as inelastic neutrino interactions) is seen in bubble chambers irradiated with neutrino beams. Whenever an electron simply "appears" in such a chamber as a new free particle suddenly moving with kinetic energy, and moves in the direction of the neutrinos as the apparent result of a new impulse, and this behavior happens more often when the neutrino beam is present, it is inferred to be a result of a neutrino interacting directly with the electron. Here, the neutrino simply strikes the electron and scatters away from it, transferring some of the neutrino's momentum to the electron. Since (i) neither neutrinos nor electrons are affected by the strong force, (ii) neutrinos are electrically neutral (therefore don't interact electromagnetically), and (iii) the incredibly small masses of these particles make any gravitational force between them negligible, such an interaction can only happen via the weak force. Since such an electron is not created from a nucleon, and is unchanged except for the new force impulse imparted by the neutrino, this weak force interaction between the neutrino and the electron must be mediated by a weak-force boson particle with no charge. Thus, this interaction requires a Z boson.

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