O Antigen 

O Antigen

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The making of LPS can be modified in order to present a specific sugar structure. Those can be recognised by either other LPS (which enables ... Read more to inhibit LPS toxins) or glycosyltransferases that use those sugar structure to add more specific sugars. It has recently been shown that a specific enzyme in the intestine (alkaline phosphatase) can detoxify LPS by removing the two phosphate groups found on LPS carbohydrates. This may function as an adaptive mechanism to help the host manage potentially toxic effects of gram-negative bacteria normally found in the small intestine. A different enzyme may detoxify LPS when it enters, or is produced in, animal tissues. Neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells produce a lipase, acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH), that inactivates LPS by removing the two secondary acyl chains from lipid A. If they are given LPS parenterally, mice that lack AOAH develop high titers of non-specific antibodies, develop prolonged hepatomegaly, and experience prolonged endotoxin tolerance. LPS inactivation may be required for animals to restore homeostasis after parenteral LPS exposure.

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